Placental mammals were early insectivores and lived along with dinosaurs in the Late cretaceous. During cretaceous mass extinction, dinosaurs became extinct and opened up lots of dietary niches. The ancestral insectivore radiated out into all the niches and had 5 chitinase genes. But those who got adapted for other diets lost their chitinase genes through accumulation of various mutations. These gene remnants passed on to all mammals now exist, as pseudo genes.
In milk, proteins cluster together to form structures called micelles. They grow from small clusters of calcium phosphate, which held the proteins together. The micelles are on average about 150 nanometres in diameter, and are able to scatter light that hits them. This scattering gives the milk its white colour.
Fish chorus? Our aquariums feel silent doesn’t mean fishes can’t product sounds. Only thing is, they make sounds that are not audible to human ears. Think of oceans, seems like a quiet place, but filled with lots of noises. Researchers...
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Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. It is a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses.